The Influence of Climate Change on Bird Populations


As birds are sensitive to climate change, by monitoring changes in the number and the distribution of birds, we can understand the impact of climate change on biodiversity.

Indicator Details


Population of selected taxa

PSBR model type

Pressure (P)

Corresponding targets


15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 percent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.


Climate change has caused the average temperature of the environment to rise, the frequency of extreme meteorological events to increase, such as polarized rainfall in some areas, prolonged dry seasons, and increased frequency of heavy rains. These extreme weather events may impact avian populations. Warmer temperatures and prolonged dry seasons, may interfere with the migration clock of birds or disrupt the ecological coupling between birds and their habitats, reduce the synchronization between avian species and other species, and reduce the population size. Therefore, by monitoring the changes in the number and distribution of birds, we can understand the impact of climate change on biodiversity.

Definition and Calculation

Take breeding birds in Taiwan as monitoring targets, we use long-term monitoring and ecological modeling to assess the influence of climate change on the distribution of birds. After select monitoring locations, conduct long-term breeding bird surveys to record bird species observed and their density. Biological modeling uses the current distribution of 151 breeding birds in Taiwan as a basis. The relationship between avian distribution and environmental variables is established using species distribution prediction models; then their short-term, mid-term, and long-term distribution patterns in the scenarios of climate change are predicted; finally, compare the changes in species diversity via GIS map overlay analysis.

The data and temporal range


Data Management Authorities

Endemic Species Research Institute, Council of Agriculture


  • Lee, P.-F. (2006) Establishment of ecological warning system under climate change—a case study of fairy pitta. DOI: 10.6539/GCC.200603_(49).0003

  • Ting, T.-S. (2014) Indicator species of alpine ecosystem under climate change—field investigation and vulnerability analysis of avian indicator species. Yushan National Park Headquarters. pdf

Data Development Status


Data Providers

Endemic Species Research Institute, Council of Agriculture